THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PURIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER FOR THE PREVENTION OF INFLUENZA AND INFECTION OF THE CORONAVIRUS COVID-19

How to reduce the risk of infection: the article discusses the various positive effects of filtering drinking water at home during the spread of infections and epidemics of diseases caused by bacteria and viruses, in particular, corona-virus.

Coronavirus

In one of our previous articles, we examined various devices and systems for treating drinking water. The question was also considered there – why is it necessary to purify even “drinking” water from the tap.

Now we will focus on the question – how household filters for drinking water purification can be useful during the spread of infections, epidemics (pandemics) of respiratory diseases caused by various pathogens (bacteria and viruses). Since this article was written during the mass distribution of the coronavirus COVID-19, this virus will be considered in more detail.

What is coronavirus?

Coronavirus COVID-19 (other names: Novel nCOV, 2019-nCoV, NCP2019-nCoV, SARS-Cov-2) belongs to the same genus of Betacoronaviruses as the well-known causative agent SARS-CoV. The virus spreads in the form of spherical virus particles (virions), with protein spikes, which give it a resemblance to the solar corona (when viewed under an electron microscope).

Of all the characteristics of this virus, for filtering purposes, it is mainly the size of the viral particle that matters. The diameter of its sphere is from 60 to 140 nanometers. The height of the protrusions averages 9-12 nm. Thus, the size of the viral particle, taking into account the spikes, is 80-160 nanometers (0.08-0.16 microns).

In addition, the fact that viral particles usually do not move on their own, alone, matters. As a rule, the virus spreads in various cells of the affected organism and physiological fluids. For example, up to 100 million genomes per 1 ml of mucus are found in the nasopharynx of a sick person. Viral RNA is also found in tissue samples, feces and urine of patients.

Therefore, if we consider the filtering issues during the spread of infection, the size of the infected cell of the organism – the carrier of the virus, can be much larger – 3000-30000 nanometers (3-30 microns), which is of more practical importance.

Which water filtration technologies can eliminate coronavirus?

Reverse osmosis filtration

Reverse osmosis filtration is ultra-thin and, of course, is able to stop the coronavirus. During the filtration process, only water molecules (0.3 nanometers in size) pass through the membrane. This is 200-500 times smaller than the size of viral particles. This is why reverse osmosis is an insurmountable barrier to contaminants of biological origin, bacteria, and most viruses (including COVID-19).

For this reason, reverse osmosis plants are used to sterilize water in medical institutions.

Reverse osmosis systems for home and office are fairly compact and uncomplicated devices, usually installed under a kitchen sink. The osmosis process is quite slow, but even the most inexpensive systems can provide the owner with a solid amount of ideal, absolutely clean drinking water – about 180 liters (50 gallons) per day at a filtration rate of 7-8 liters per hour.

Aquaphor OSMO-50 Trio

We may find reverse osmosis filters of a classic type with replaceable elements measuring 2.5×10 inches, for example, Aquaphor OSMO-50 Trio. Other devices may be produced in the form of more compact modern installations, like Aquaphor DWM-101s Morion.

Aquaphor DWM-101s
Aquaphor DWM-101s Morion: compact reverse osmosis system

The latter option provides for the replacement of filter elements together with their housings – this is a bit more expensive, but much faster (thanks to Click & Turn technology). It is also important that this technology eliminates human contact with the contaminated elements as well as the need to wash and disinfect their enclosures.

Multi-stage flow filters.

Such devices are more compact and easier to install, compared with filters based on reverse osmosis. The degree of micro-filtration of such installations depends entirely on the used filter elements (cartridges). Usually a three-stage purification takes place, and the last element carries out the finest filtration.

For example, in the case of the use of a three-stage Aquaphor Crystal filter, the element K7 or K7B can be used as a cartridge for final purification. The K7 element consists of a combination of pressed activated carbon of the coconut shell with Aqualen fibers (Carb-Fiber Block, CFB) and is capable of retaining particles larger than 0.8 microns. The K7B element, in addition to CFB, has a special hollow fiber (HF) membrane, which allows it to trap very small particles down to 0.1 microns.

Aquaphor Crystal: innovative under-counter water filter
Aquaphor Crystal: innovative under-counter water filter

As a result, these filters have a degree of purification not as perfect as reverse osmosis systems, but quite sufficient to fight the most contaminants.

Filtering jugs (pitchers).

Most filter jugs have only one filtering element, and the degree of purification of which is significantly lower than that of more complex systems. However, these simple devices can be successfully used in combination with boiling. Boiling kills most microbes and viruses, but not everyone likes the taste of boiled water – it can increase the unpleasant aftertaste of the impurities of the source water: metal from the pipes, calcium salts in hard water, etc. In this case, a filtering jug will help.

Aquaphor Amethyst in the Kitchen
Aquaphor Amethyst in the kitchen

Filtration of water in a jug before boiling eliminates the unpleasant odor of chlorine, metals and other impurities. The use of magnesium cartridges (for example, B25Mg or A5Mg), in addition, softens hard water and enriches it with useful substances.

If the source water is very hard, and after boiling, the calcium salts precipitate as the flakes of unpleasant taste and look, a filtering jug can be used to filter the water after boiling, however the water must be allowed to cool, and this should be a separate jug.

A filtering pitcher can also be useful as an inexpensive temporary solution if it is not possible to install a stationary filter (temporary housing, a business or tourist trip).

Other positive aspects of the use of water filters.

Of course, the above conclusions as applied to the new coronavirus are theoretical and have not yet been verified experimentally. However, there are also quite practical aspects, confirmed by long experience of using filtering systems.

No doubt that any purification of raw water improves its quality, removes toxins, allergens and makes the water healthier. The use of clean and high-quality water, as a result, strengthens a person’s health and immunity, and hence the ability to resist diseases.

With bronchitis, flu and pneumonia (both for prevention and during treatment), doctors recommend drinking plenty of water, and it is important that this water is safe and of high quality.

As for bottled water, it is necessary to distinguish between branded mineral water from certain natural sources and inexpensive bottled drinking water. The filter for drinking water will not turn tap water into mineral, medicinal or medicinal-canteen. However, it will successfully replace ordinary bottled water, and at the same time, the cost of a liter of high-quality purified water will be several times less. On-site water filtration eliminates both the difficulties of its delivery and the need for further disposal of non-environmentally friendly plastic bottles.

Bottles vs Filtration
Bottles vs Filtration

Moreover, during a viral or bacterial epidemic, and even more so in quarantine, this becomes especially important. Many people ask the question – how not to get infected with the virus, how can you avoid infection? The main advice that experts give is to limit your presence in a potentially contaminated atmosphere. A home filter for drinking water, as an inexhaustible source, allows you to leave your home less often, reduce the number of visits to the supermarket, and therefore reduces the risk of infection from other people. For those who are already sick, this opportunity is even more important, as it provides the conditions for recovery without the risk of infecting others.

Conclusion

Considering the above, we come to the conclusion that the use of filtration systems not only improves the taste and smell of drinking water and let you enjoy the true taste of your favorite foods and drinks, without any impurities. Most importantly, clean and safe water is absolutely essential for maintaining good health.

Now, with the ubiquity of seasonal respiratory infections, flu, and coronavirus, there are many reports of people laying in stock pasta, cereals, and even toilet paper. The motivation of those people to stockpile for a rainy day is understandable. However, it is much more logical to invest in something that is absolutely impossible to do without; which will be necessary even after the coronavirus panic comes to naught – in the source of high-quality and safe water in your home.

Glass of Clean Water
Glass of Clean Water

You can purchase filters, jugs, filter cartridges and related products in the Promarket-EU online store.

This article includes links to the examples of devices, which are discussed, on the our corporate website, on Amazon marketplace, and/or online store ProMarket. You may use them if you are interested to get more detailed information or you want to buy something you like with EU delivery.

If you have a related business (for example, a store for household goods and household appliances, a pharmacy or a business for plumbers), you can offer your customers a new high-quality and profitable product. For wholesale discounts and a sales representative deals, please write to ProMarket by email.

Photos and technical details courtesy of Aquaphor, ProMarket.

Table (grid) of frequencies for radio stations of CB (civilian) range 27 MHz

Table (grid) of frequencies

What is a table (grid) of frequencies?
Why is a frequency grid required? Why I can’t use frequencies directly?
How to use the frequency table?

Small F.A.Q.

What is a table (grid) of frequencies?

Table (grid) of frequencies (Frequency Chart, Table) is a table of correspondence of a certain frequency to the conditional channel number of a standard frequency grid.

Why is a frequency grid required? Why I can’t use frequencies directly?

ou can use the frequencies, but this is quite inconvenient – you need to remember 5-6 characters for each single frequency. Therefore, in two-way radios (land mobile radios, walkie-talkies) of the Citizens Band, we use the Channels – conditional one-two-digit numbers. They are easier to remember and tune. Sometimes, in addition to the channel number, a letter of the Latin alphabet (“Band”) is used. In this case, the channel frequency, for example, D1 is not equal to the frequency of the channel E1; so these are independent channels.

How to use the frequency table?

To use a simple standard (one-dimensional) frequency table, it is enough to compare the channel number and frequency. For example, emergency communication channel 9 corresponds to a frequency of 27.065 MHz (27065 kHz) – see table 1.
To use a frequency grid with a Band letter (two-dimensional table), you need to select the column BAND with the desired letter and the row with the channel number (channel). Their intersection will indicate the frequency. For example, in the transceiver Alan-78 +, channel D19 corresponds to a frequency of 27.185 MHz. In many countries of the world, this is the “call” frequency – see table 2 and notes.

Table 1.
Standard “European” grid of 40 channels

Channel Frequency
Channel Frequency
1 26.965 R/C 27.195
2 26.975 20 27.205
3 26.985 21 27.215
R/C 26.995 22 27.225
4 27.005 23 & R/C 27.255
5 27.015 24 27.235
6 27.025 25 27.245
7 27.035 26 27.265
R/C 27.045 27 27.275
8 27.055 28 27.285
9 27.065 29 27.295
10 27.075 30 27.305
11 27.085 31 27.315
R/C 27.095 32 27.325
12 27.105 33 27.335
13 27.115 34 27.345
14 27.125 35 27.355
15 27.135 36 27.365
R/C 27.145 37 27.375
16 27.155 38 27.385
17 27.165 39 27.395
18 27.175 40 27.405
19 27.185

Notes and explanations:

1. In most countries, a frequency plan for the civil band of 27 MHz (CB, “Citizens Band”) has been approved, containing 40 standard channels with numbers from 1 to 40 (harmonized by the FCC (America) and CEPT (Europe)).

2. In addition, within the range, 5 “hidden” channels are allocated for radio control, modeling and data transmission devices (these channels are indicated by R/C and are highlighted in light-blue). Channel 23 was also previously intended for radio control, but now it is also used for voice communications.

3. Channel 9 with a frequency of 27.065 MHz (highlighted in red) is an emergency channel and is usually tapped by government rescue services.

4. Channel 19 is considered the common channel of the call (after establishing communication on this channel, the interlocutors usually switch to another channel for communication). In addition, in a number of countries, this channel is considered the channel of truckers and travelers. However, in some countries truck drivers often use other channels, for example: 5 AM in Italy, 13 AM in Greece, 15 in Russia. These channels are highlighted in yellow.

5. Channels 23, 24, 25 have frequencies out of order, because the very first standard of the radio for free using by civilians (USA, 1958) had only 23 channels.

6. Some countries (e.g. Poland, Kazakhstan and Russia (officially)) use a frequency grid with frequencies reduced by 5 kHz. Thus, there the frequency of channel 19, for example, will be 27.180 MHz. In some multi-standard radios (for example, Luiton LT-298), the frequency shift is carried out by selecting the country code (PL), and in some – by pressing a special button.

7. In some countries, not the only standard, but additional frequency bands are allowed. Most often, they are switched by changing the channel letter (BAND). The correspondence of the frequencies of the channels in such cases is indicated in the second table (see below). In this case, most often as the main (central) band is Band D, the channels of which correspond to the standard grid of 40 channels. In walkie-talkies of different manufacturers, letters may differ (see the names in the right column).

Table 2.
Expanded “European” grid (transceivers Luiton, Anytone, Alan-78 +, 48+, 48XL and others)

BAND


channel

А

B

С

D

E

F

g(G)

H

I

L

ALAN /
Midland,
Luiton

1

25,615

26,065

26,515

26,965

27,415

27,865

28,315

28,765

29,215

29,665

 

2

625

075

525

975

425

875

325

775

225

675

 

3

635

085

535

985

435

885

335

785

235

685

 

4

655

105

555

27,005

455

905

355

805

255

705

 

5

665

115

565

015

465

915

365

815

265

715

 

6

675

125

575

025

475

925

375

825

275

725

 

7

685

135

585

035

485

935

385

835

285

735

 

8

705

155

605

055

505

955

405

855

305

755

 

9

715

165

615

065

515

965

415

865

315

765

 

10

725

175

625

075

525

975

425

875

325

775

 

11

735

185

635

085

535

985

435

885

335

785

 

12

755

205

655

105

555

28,005

455

905

355

805

 

13

765

215

665

115

565

015

465

915

365

515

 

14

775

225

675

125

575

025

475

925

375

825

 

15

785

235

685

135

585

035

485

935

385

835

 

16

805

255

705

155

605

055

505

955

405

855

 

17

815

265

715

165

615

065

515

965

415

865

 

18

825

275

725

175

625

075

525

975

425

875

 

19

835

285

735

185

635

085

535

985

435

885

 

20

855

305

755

205

655

105

555

29,005

455

905

 

21

865

315

765

215

665

115

565

015

465

915

 

22

875

325

775

225

675

125

575

025

475

925

 

23

905

355

805

255

705

155

605

055

505

955

 

24

885

335

785

235

685

135

585

035

485

935

 

25

895

345

795

245

695

145

595

045

495

945

 

26

915

365

815

265

715

165

615

065

515

965

 

27

925

375

825

275

725

175

625

075

525

975

 

28

935

385

835

285

735

185

635

085

535

985

 

29

945

395

845

295

745

195

645

095

545

995

 

30

955

405

855

305

755

205

655

105

555

30,005

 

31

965

415

865

315

765

215

665

115

565

015

 

32

975

425

375

325

775

225

675

125

575

025

 

33

985

435

885

335

785

235

685

135

585

035

 

34

995

445

895

345

795

245

695

145

595

045

 

35

26,005

455

905

355

805

255

705

155

605

055

 

36

015

465

915

365

815

265

715

165

615

065

 

37

025

475

925

375

825

275

725

175

625

075

 

38

035

485

935

385

835

285

735

185

635

085

 

39

045

495

945

395

845

295

745

195

645

095

 

40

055

505

955

405

855

305

755

205

655

105

 

I

Je

Аe

Be

Ce

De

Ee

Fe

Ge

He

[Le]

ТАИС

-D

А

В

C

D

Е

+B

 

Маусоm

 

 

А

B

С

D

E

F

 

 

 

MegaJet, Yosan…

This article includes links to the examples of devices, which are discussed, on the informational website, on Amazon marketplace, and/or online store ProMarket. You may use them if you are interested to get more detailed information or you want to buy something you like with EU delivery.

CB Radio
CB Radio kit

FILTERING PITCHER IS A SIMPLE AND SUFFICIENTLY EFFECTIVE DEVICE FOR PURIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER.

The article discusses the characteristics and selection criteria of a filtering jug (pitcher) for the home, the similarities, and differences of different pitchers.

Aquaphor Provance pitcher

In a previous article, we examined various devices and systems for treating drinking water. The question that was also considered there – why is it necessary to purify “drinking” water from the tap. We made sure that such water, without additional filtration, may be quite safe, but rarely has characteristics suitable for direct consumption, as well as for the preparation of culinary dishes and drinks.

Now we will dwell on the review of the most simple and popular device for purifying drinking water – a filtering jug. As a rule, a filtering jug has a low price (from 17 to 25 euros for a product of good quality, without unnecessary “bells and whistles”). At the same time, it does not need to be connected and installed, you can quickly start using it, it is easy to find replaceable modules, it is easy to take with you on a trip.

Despite the simplicity and low price, the filtering jug is an excellent and quite an effective device for improving the composition, taste, smell, and type of water for use in cooking food and drinks. There are many varieties of types and brands of filter jugs.

How To Make The Right Choice Of Filter Jug?

To begin with, let’s dwell on the characteristics that can be expressed with specific numbers. The main characteristics of the filtering jugs: the capacity of the jug, the volume of the funnel (filtered water), the material of which the jug is made, the type of filter element (cartridge), the type of counter, the frequency of replacing the cartridge.

Pitcher capacity. Manufacturers usually mean by the capacity of the jug its full capacity, as if it were filled with water to the top. Unlike its full capacity, the volume of filtered water is about half.

The material of manufacture. As a rule, modern jugs of leading manufacturers are made of polymeric materials that are allowed for use with water and food products. Budget models of jugs, as a rule, are made of similar materials – it is quite soft and thin plastic, subject to scratches and chips during operation. More expensive jug options are made from premium materials. For example, Aquaphor Provance and Onyx are made of Tritan, which resembles glass in appearance, but is much lighter and less prone to collapse.

Type of filter. The most popular in Europe are the so-called oval filter cartridges used by many manufacturers. By the name of one of the most popular manufacturers, they are often called “Brita cartridges”. According to the manufacturer’s classification of Aquaphor, it is a B-25 Maxfor (previously B100-25) cartridge. Cartridges of this type are very popular, are available for a long time and can be found everywhere, but their durability is quite limited. As a rule, this is one month of operation or 150 liters of water. New-type round cartridges used in Aquaphor jugs have resources of 200-350 l of water and a duration of use of 2-3 months. A review of cartridges, in all their diversity, will be devoted to a separate article.

In order for the purified water to be truly high-quality, it is necessary to replace the filter cartridge in time. In order not to forget about it and not to make a mistake, most jugs are equipped with a filling counter or a cartridge replacement calendar. Most often, the counters are mechanical, reacting to the opening of the lid when filling the jug. In addition, on modern round cartridges, there is a kind of calendar that reminds you when to replace a cartridge. Very rarely, electronic meters are found. They look modern, but require batteries for power and are afraid of moisture, like any electronics. Therefore, their use is not too practical.

Slider grill and counter ( Aquaphor Prestige and Aquaphor Amethyst)

In addition to the quantitative characteristics of pitchers, attention should be paid to ergonomics and ease of use. For example, to fill the jug with water, a sliding lid, louvre lid, or opening spout can be used.

A Comparative Review Of Popular Filter Jugs.

Now let’s compare 4 popular jugs from the current Aquaphor product line.

Aquaphor Onyx.

This sleek, classic-design pitcher is made from Eastman’s durable, unbreakable Tritan. This polymer is approved for prolonged contact with drinking water and food. Moreover, it is manufactured without the use of bisphenol (BPA-free). Unlike conventional plastics, Tritan is more transparent and less prone to scratching and clouding. Onyx jugs are made not on a die, but by blowing, just like expensive glass products.


Pitcher Aquaphor Onyx in interior

Due to the wide round bottom, Onyx is very stable – it is difficult to accidentally knock over. But even if you drop it, the jug is unlikely to break, which makes it more practical and safe for use in a family with small children.

A convenient flip-flop-type lid is opened by pressing the thumb and activates a mechanical counter. The full capacity of the jug is 4.2 l; This is enough for use in a fairly large family.

Complete with Aquaphor Onyx (Onice, Оникс) comes a standard oval cartridge B25 Maxfor (B100-25). Its resource is 200 liters and approximately one month of operation. This cartridge is very popular in Europe, it can be found everywhere, like its counterparts (for example, Brita Maxtra).

Aquaphor Provance.

The Aquaphor Provance pitcher (Provence, Provenza, Прованс) is also designed in an elegant country style and has all the advantages of the previous model. It is also made of “artificial glass” Tritan and has a large volume. And it copes with the purification of water from most of the pollution. The lid of the jug can be made in stylish white or black.


Pitcher Aquaphor Provance in the kitchen

Unlike Onyx, the Provence jug used the new original Aquaphor B5 round cartridge (B100-5) with an antibacterial filter and extended service life (up to two months or 300 liters of water). Other Aquaphor cartridges with a round landing slot can also be used in this jug (for more details see another article).

Aquaphor Prestige B5.


Aquaphor Prestige on the table

The Aquaphor Prestige pitcher (Prestigio, Престиж) is slightly smaller than the previous ones. It is made of ordinary food-grade plastic. The full capacity of the jug is 2.8 l, the funnel volume is 1.4 l. This is enough to fill a standard kettle or coffee maker. This jug uses the same B5 round cartridge (or compatible cartridges) as the Aquaphor Provence. Accordingly, it has a similar resource (300 l) and a service life (two months). Water can be drawn into it through the original slider grill, which is conveniently pushed away with the thumb and protects the water from dust during filtration and storage. Due to the more compact size, this jug takes up less space in the refrigerator, which is important in the hot summertime. The filling counter is also mechanical. It is complemented by a calendar on the cartridge itself.

Aquaphor Amethyst.


Aquaphor Amethyst on the table in a garden

Aquaphor Amethyst (Ametista, Аметист) has a similar device and characteristics but is adapted to the B-25 oval cartridge, which is more popular in Europe. Accordingly, it has a slightly lower filtering resource. However, its advantages include a cute and original design. Thanks to a variety of color options (from classic white to juicy cherry color), you can easily pick up this jug to the color scheme of any kitchen. A graceful round handle goes well with an oval funnel and cartridge shapes.


Aquaphor Amethyst in the door of a refrigerator

Conclusions.

Despite the differences in design, specifications, and price, all of the above models do an excellent job of purifying water from most contaminants. The degree of purification of jugs is naturally lower than that of multi-stage household purification systems or reverse osmosis systems. However, filtering the water in a pitcher completely eliminates or significantly reduces the content of many harmful substances: mechanical impurities, active chlorine, petroleum products, phenol, heavy metals, pesticides. At the same time, the cost of one liter of purified water is much less than when using bottled water. You should also take into account that the bottles still need to be brought, and then disposed of.

Therefore, filter jugs can be recommended as a simple, environmentally friendly and quite effective means of improving the quality of drinking water.

Pitcher As A Great Gift Idea.

The filtering jug is a great gift idea for your family, friends, and relatives. Such a gift is a manifestation of your concern for the health and well-being of the person to whom you give it. This is an appropriate gift for Christmas and New Year, for a birthday, housewarming or wedding. Such a gift will also be pleasant to receive for a person who is fond of cooking and preparing drinks. Aquaphor filter jugs are delivered in high-quality and colorful packaging and come with everything you need for using it.


Aquaphor Onyx out of the package

Where To Buy Quality Filter Jugs?

Aquaphor, unlike some other manufacturers, does not transfer its production to the “third world” countries. The main factories Aquaphor are in Europe and the USA. The European market mainly receives products from thenew production plant in Estonia.

These products are manufactured to the highest quality standards and comply with all EU regulations.

You can purchase jugs, filter cartridges, and related products in the online store Promarket-EU.

For those who have an Amazon account, it may be convenient to order goods at any of the European branches of this online platform. Relevant links for buyers from the UK, Italy, France, Germany, Spain, and other European countries can be found on the portal http://filtro.promarket.info/index.html.

This article includes affiliate links to the examples of devices, which are discussed, on Amazon marketplace and on the website ProMarket. You may use them if you are interested to get more detailed information / characteristics or if you want to buy something you like.

Photos and technical details courtesy of Aquaphor, ProMarket.

If you have a related business (for example, a store for household goods and household appliances, a pharmacy or a business for plumbers), you can offer your customers a new high-quality and profitable product. For wholesale discounts and a sales representative deals, please write to ProMarket by

E-Mail

Promarket-eu mail

Frequently Asked Questions about CB (Citizens Band) Civil Radio (F.A.Q.)

CB radio in car
What is CB and how to use it?

CB (“Citizens Band”) radio is a section of the 27 MHz band, open for free use by anyone. In some countries, you still need to purchase a license for radio communications, but it is very simple and inexpensive. In any case, the CB mobile transceivers and walkie-talkie are the most affordable way to quickly communicate for personal, family, professional and other uses.

Why do people continue to use two-way radio while there are cell phones, instant messengers and Skype?

1) CB radio – a simple, convenient, reliable way to communicate and instantly transmit voice information. This is real-time communications. You do not have to dial, listen to the dial tone, and wait for the connection. No need to type text and wait for someone to read it. It is enough to press one button and say.
2) Radio communication is broadcast by its nature. This is especially important when working in a team – what one person told is immediately heard by everyone who is tuned to this channel.
3) Radio communication is the most independent form of communication. Unlike telephone, cellular, trunk and other types of paid centralized communications, civil radio (CB-Radio) is not tied to someone’s antenna and can be used in any, even the most remote and remote place at the discretion of the owner. It works in emergency situations, when wired communications (telephone, Internet) are damaged, in the absence of electricity, in the countryside, in the forest and at sea.
4) Radio devices are inexpensive, easy to use, do not require care. You can master working with them in a matter of minutes. And, in addition, they have something from the romance of wanderings and long roads.

What is the working range (distance) of CB radios?

The communication range is determined by the characteristics of the station (mainly power), the quality and height of the antennas, the terrain, and the level of interference on the air.
In the frequency range of 27 MHz, the typical communication distance between objects with stationary antennas (for example, house – villa) is up to 70 km; between cars – up to 20 km; between pedestrians with walkie-talkies – up to 3 km. Range decreases in rugged terrain and when you surrounded by tall buildings, as well as near large power lines and substations.
In addition to the constant, guaranteed connection, which was discussed above, in certain weather, “over-passage” is possible, during which you can contact objects that are many thousands of kilometers away.

What do you need to have in a car (truck, special or agricultural machine) for radio communications in the CB band?

In general, in order to use two-way radio in a car, two basic things are needed:
1) antenna;
2) transceiver (two-way radio device).
Most transceivers operate on 12 volts. There are some of them operating up to 24 V, but their selection is small. Therefore, in the case that only 24 volt wiring is present in a car, truck, special or agricultural machine, usually you need an additional component:
3) 24/12 linear voltage converter.

May I use an antenna from a radio, TV, mobile speakerphone kit for radio communications?

Absolutely not! Any transceiver works not only on reception, but also on transmission. Therefore, for normal operation, the antenna must be tuned in resonance to the frequency of the radio. Otherwise, the device will not only work very poorly, but will also fail very quickly. Therefore, not only antennas from inappropriate devices, but also antennas from radios of a different frequency range cannot be connected to the transceiver.

How to choose the antenna for CB radio?

Antenna is the main element of the system. First of all, it should be suitable for a frequency range of the radio .
In addition, when choosing an antenna, 3 simple things should be taken into account: a) the method of attachment to the machine (magnet, insert into the hole or bracket); b) length (the longer the antenna, the better it works); brand (well-known amateur radio companies such as Alan / Midland, Sirio and Optim, to name a few, really know a lot about the manufacture of antennas).

Should I buy a transceiver complete with antenna (kit)?

If you are a novice user of radio communications, then, of course, the answer is yes, it is better to take a ready-to-use kit. Because in this case, at least the minimum component compatibility is guaranteed. If you are an experienced radio amateur or a seasoned radio pirate, then you already have enough competence to select the components individually.

We recommend:

CB radio kit Luiton LT-298 and antenna
CB radio kit Luiton LT-298 and antenna

The CB Radio Car Kit, which includes the Luiton LT-298 transceiver and CB Euro Mag magnetic antenna, ready-to-use.

DRINKING WATER PURIFIERS AND FILTRATION SYSTEMS – A COMPARATIVE REVIEW

The article discusses the main ways of filtering drinking water at home: a filtering jug, flow filter, reverse osmosis installation. Photos and technical details courtesy of Aquaphor.

Water pitcher Aquaphor Provence (buy on Amazon)

WHY IT’S ADVISABLE TO PURIFY TAP DRINKING WATER?

In most developed countries, there are standards for drinking water supplied to residential buildings. However, water quality control is usually carried out at the exit from a centralized filtration system. And then the water goes a long way until it reaches the tap in your kitchen. This path runs through many kilometers of pipes, most often laid many years ago. Some of these pipes are iron, hence a metallic taste, rust and other oxides appear in the water. Copper pipelines are also found in homes – they themselves are durable, but oxidized copper is also not good for the body.

In addition, dirt accumulates in any pipes (including modern polymer pipes). Where does it come from? In case of accidents and damage to pipes underground, the soil erodes, together with water it enters the pipe and spreads throughout the entire branched system. When repairing a damaged pipe, of course, it is replaced, but it is no longer possible to flush the entire system perfectly. Imagine how much sediment settles in pipes in 10 or 20 years! This dirt is the habitat of various bacteria and other microorganisms. If the water is chlorinated, this inhibits their development, but chlorine and chlorides in themselves are harmful substances.

Even if the water in the tap meets basic hygiene standards, its appearance, smell and taste may be far from ideal. In particular, the calcium content may not exceed the norm, but it can leave white marks on dishes, precipitate when boiling, create scale and spoil your household electrical appliances. In addition, excessively hard water negatively affects the life of the body, as it causes a violation of the acid-base balance in physiological fluids.

Thus, if you want to avoid all these troubles, to feel the true taste of your favorite drinks, to protect your family and children from the long-term consequences of drinking contaminated water, there are only two solutions – either buy bottled water (from a trusted supplier) or fix existing water on the spot . The second option allows you to get the required amount of clean drinking water right in your home. The price of one liter of such water (even when installing quite complex and expensive systems) in the future will be ten times cheaper than bottled water.

Filters for drinking water help reduce the amount of impurities, ensure the elimination of pathogenic bacteria, and also significantly improve the taste. Proper purifying favorably affects the composition of the water, guarantees the health and well-being of those who regularly use water.

DIVERSITY OF FILTERING SYSTEMS

The most popular types of drinking filters:

filtering pitcher (jug);
flow (in-line) filter;
reverse osmosis system.

FILTERING PITCHERS

Aquaphor Onyx pitcher
Aquaphor Onyx pitcher (buy on Amazon)

Some people hesitate to install a special fixed filter for water, so they prefer portable filter jugs. Amazingly, this simple and inexpensive thing can eliminate most of the insoluble inclusions and significantly improve the water quality. A pitcher can also be useful as a temporary solution, for example, when going on vacation to an unfamiliar area, where the composition of the water is likely to differ from the usual.
There is a wide variety of filter pitchers, and we will examine them in more detail in another review.

Advantages of filter pitchers:

  • low price (for example, fairly high-quality jugs Aquaphor Amethyst may cost less than 20 euros;
  • the ability to use them without installation, immediately after purchase;
  • sufficiently high efficiency of cleaning the main pollution;
  • a wide variety of shapes, volumes and colors (compare, for example, Aquaphor Prestige and Aquaphor Onyx )

Disadvantages of filter pitchers:

  • this type of water treatment does not provide a sufficient level of filtration for fine and dissolved contaminants;
  • the amount of filtered water is quite limited;
  • despite the fact that this option seems economical, filter cartridges will have to be changed quite often (every 1-3 months or 200-350 liters).

FLOW (IN-LINE) FILTER

To clean drinking water in your house, now you do not need bulky systems. It is enough to place an additional faucet next to the usual tap, and place the filter system under the kitchen sink. Filters for drinking water “under the sink” get the highest place in the ranking of the best cleaning products because of ease of use and effective results.

Crystal A - under the sink filter

A compact household appliance can improve the quality of the water used and is much more effective than a filter jug. For example, the Aquaphor Crystal three-stage filter is effective against chlorine, lead, heavy metals, pesticides, phenol, colloidal iron and other impurities larger than 0.8 micrometers. As a rule, the first two stages of purification eliminate fine particles and impurities, and the last stage (made using carbon-block technology from activated coconut carbon) – finishes and eliminates odors.

Most people, who has some housekeeping skills, along with instructions and appropriate tools, do the job of installing filters on their own, but it is recommended (and sometimes even required by local rules) that a qualified plumber do this job. Usually installation takes 1-2 hours.

The performance of such a filter is more than 3 liters per minute.
Frequency of replacement of filter elements – from 6 to 12 months.
The resource of filtering elements is up to 6000 liters.
Periodic replacement of filter elements is not difficult and can be carried out independently.

The price of such systems is usually within 100 euros.

REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM

The most thorough purification method is a filter with reverse osmosis system.
Water in such a system is under pressure and, in addition to pre-filters of various porosity and structure, passes through a special membrane. A water molecule (0.3 nm in size) passes through this membrane, but the majority of chemical impurities and inclusions of biological origin, in particular microorganisms and viruses (sizes from 20 to 500 nm), do not pass. For example, such a filter can trap cholera bacteria or hepatitis viruses.

This method is especially recommended if the quality of the source water is unstable or cannot be controlled (for example, old water pipes, as well as boreholes and wells in rural areas).

DWM-101 Morion reverse osmosis system
DWM-101 Morion reverse osmosis system (buy on Amazon)

Typically, a reverse osmosis system includes two to three cartridges with pre-filters, a reverse osmosis membrane, a storage tank, a post-filter and a separate faucet for purified water. A storage tank is necessary because filtration is quite slow, and it is convenient to have a stock of purified water (4-8 liters), which can be used immediately. If the system pressure is too low, a pressure boost pump is also required; it can either be included in the system immediately, or delivered, if necessary, separately, such as the Aquaphor Booster Kit.

If the source water is dirty or has a lot of insoluble impurities (for example, sand), a pre-filter is installed in front of the system. If microorganisms are likely to be in the water, then the system is supplemented with a bactericidal ultraviolet lamp.

Frequency of replacement of filter elements – from 6 to 12 months
The resource of filtering elements is up to 8000 liters.
Routine maintenance and replacement of filter elements is not difficult and can be carried out independently.

Reverse osmosis systems also have disadvantages:

  • unlike conventional filters, not all water passes through the system – during operation, a certain amount of water with concentrated impurities is formed, which usually outflows into the drain; that is, producing 1 liter of super-pure water requires from 2 to 4 liters of source. Outflow water is not dangerous, it is even cleaner than the original tap water, and it can be used for technical purposes or for secondary filtration;
  • the reverse osmosis system requires a certain water pressure for operation, usually in the range of 2.5 – 6.0 bar; if the initial pressure is too small – a booster is required, and if too large – a pressure reducer;
  • A relatively complex system requires certain skills in installation and maintenance. Most people, who has some housekeeping skills, along with instructions and appropriate tools, do the job of installing filters on their own, but it is recommended (and sometimes even required by local rules) that a qualified plumber do this job. Usually installation takes 1-2 hours, including the initial washing of the filters.

Quality reverse osmosis systems can cost anywhere from 150 to 700 euros.

Some skeptics believe that the water from reverse osmosis systems is too pure, does not contain minerals and has no taste. Yes, in such water, there are practically no impurities, which means there are no salts and minerals. It is just water, with the taste of water and without any foreign smell, and it perfectly quenches thirst. Scientific studies show that it is impossible to overestimate the role of water as a solvent, and the environment for all physiological processes. However, most of the nutrients, vitamins and minerals a person receives not from water, but from food.

Of course, if you are used to drink quality mineral water and you like its taste, you can continue to drink it. But in order to find out the true taste of your favorite dishes and drinks (coffee, classic and herbal teas), it is better to use absolutely pure water for their preparation. Water without impurities is also preferable for cooking food and drinks for children and people suffering from allergies and various diseases.

In modern reverse osmosis systems, the aforementioned disadvantages have already been partially eliminated. For example, in the Aquaphor Morion DWM-101S, the minimum pressure requirements are reduced to 1.86 bar. In addition, this system facilitates the process of replacing cartridges, and it is also possible (as a finishing post-filter) to use elements with the addition of minerals, such as magnesium, which is good for the heart.

The features of various reverse osmosis systems are discussed in more detail in another article.

CONCLUSION

Which system to choose? The answer to this question depends on the quality of the source water, the task and the required amount of treatment.

If there is a need to improve the properties of water urgently and without capital expenditures, and the source water is safe enough, then the easiest way is to buy a filtering jug. Also, this is a good option for temporary housing or on a trip.

If the source water is safe enough and you need more water (family, more or less permanent residence, or a small cafe), then this or that flow filtration system is suitable.

If the quality of the source water is unstable or in doubt, or if you need perfectly pure water, free of 99.9% of all known impurities, then the best solution would be to install a reverse osmosis system.

The main conclusion that can be drawn: any of the considered filtration systems improves water quality and, therefore, brings long-term health benefits.

Tips and Tricks: CB Radio 27 MHz – issue 1 – Installation on the Car.

Trucks on the road near Italian Alps

If we are talking about CB radio communication in the range of 27 MHz (Citizen Band), you can buy the most expensive radio and the most efficient antenna, but the practical work of this kit will depend on the correct and optimal installation on the car.


The power supply of the radio must be connected respecting mandatory compliance with polarity (usually the red wire – “+”, black – “-“).
If the voltage exceeds 15V, the power supply to the radio should pass through the LINEAR converter. A pulse converter can be a source of interference and interfere with reception even if it is not connected to the radio.
It is recommended to power [+] wire from the battery through a separate fuse and [-] wire – from the ground of the machine near the place of installation of the radio. If the [-] wire run from the battery, it must also be protected by its own fuse.
The nominal value of the fuses must correspond to the design current of the radio.
The radio must be placed in a convenient and accessible place, the speaker must be open.
The radio and antennas require periodic inspections and maintenance, so you need to install them so you can quickly remove them.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Perdita_Car.jpg

The antenna must match the radio frequency.
If the antenna is installed higher and near the center of the machine, it works better (see diagram). Please note that installing any antenna in a bad place can result in a loss of more than 3 decibels of gain, which is equivalent to losing half the total power radiated by the radio transmitter.
The antenna must be installed vertically. There should be no metal parts near the pin (whip).
Mortise antenna designed for installation on a metal surface. If it is mounted on a bracket, it is necessary to ensure the contact of the antenna base with the ground of the machine: clean the paint on the antenna joints with the bracket and the bracket with the bodywork, tighten the screws. Otherwise the antenna will malfunction.
If the antenna is good, properly installed, but does not work well for transmission, it may not be tuned by SWR on a specific channel. Verify, configure.
If the metal surface of the installation has insufficient area for the antenna or an irregular shape, tuning and proper functioning of the antenna may be impossible.
Any damage, even minimal, to the antenna cable can break the connection and cause the radio to fail.
The antenna’s threaded connections require periodic cleaning and the hidden cavities require drying.

It is normal to face the spots with abnormal noise level (for example, near the electric wires, office buildings (which have a lot of computers) etc. But if the noise level during the reception is too high everywhere, you should find and eliminate the source of interference within the car (it can be a pulse DC/DC or DC/AC converter, a led lamp, an abnormal xenon, etc.)

Please note that the most optimal solutions in the field of telecommunications or civil radio communication can be found in the online store http://ProMarket-EU.com, as well as on Amazon.